Hebrews 1:1-3

1 On many past occasions and in many different ways, God spoke to our fathers through the prophets.

2 But in these last days He has spoken to us by His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, and through whom He made the universe.

3 The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of His nature, upholding all things by His powerful word. After He had provided purification for sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high.

  • God

    • In the past
      • spoke to (Israel’s) fathers
      • through the prophets
    • but in these last days
      • has spoken to us
      • by His Son
  • Son

    • God has spoken to us through Him
    • God appointed Him heir of all things
    • God created the universe (‘world’, literally ‘ages’) through (or ‘in’) Him (the Son)
    • is the radiance of God’s glory
    • the exact representation of God’s nature
    • upholds all things by His powerful word
    • provided purification for sins
    • sits at the right hand of the Majesty on high
  • Radiance

G541 - apaúgasma

A light flashing forth (from), radiation, gleam. From a compound of apo and augazo; an off-flash, i.e. Effulgence.

HELPS Word-studies

541 apaúgasma (from 575 /apó, “from” which intensifies 826 /augázō, “shine,” derived from augē/“dawn”) – properly, someone who literally “shines,” (is radiant). 541 (apaúgasma) is only used in Heb 1:3 where it refers to Christ’s eternal radiance – supremely reflecting the effulgent glory of the Godhead. His eternal light breaks through all the darkness that keeps someone in spiritual ignorance (bondage), i.e. every resistance exerted by sin.

  • Exact Representation

G5481 - charaktér

From the same as charax; a graver, i.e. engraving, the figure stamped, i.e. An exact copy or representation).

HELPS Word-studies

5481 xaraktḗr – properly, an engraving; (figuratively) an exact impression (likeness) which also reflects inner character.

[5481 /xaraktḗr was originally a tool (used for engraving) and then came to mean “a die” (“mould”). Finally it stood for a stamp or impress used on a coin or seal (see H, 368). In each case, the stamp conveyed the reality behind the image.]

The Greek fathers (ad 100 -500) used 5481 /xaraktḗr (“the ultimate radiance”) of the supreme effulgence of Christ, showing forth His glory as the second Person of the eternal Godhead (Heb 1:3).

  • Upholds

G5342 - pheró

To carry, bear, bring; I conduct, lead; perhaps: I make publicly known. A primary verb.

HELPS Word-studies

5342 phérō (“allied to German fahren, Scotch bairn, ‘bear,’ ” J. Thayer, Curtis) – properly, to bear, carry (bring) along, especially temporarily or to a definite (prescribed) conclusion (defined by the individual context). See also 5409 /phoréō (“habitual bearing”).

(1 Pet 1:13) being brought (5342 /phérō) – 1 Pet 1:13 commands us to “completely (5049 /teleíōs) hope on the grace now being brought (present, passive participle of 5342 /phérō) in (en) revelation (no article) of Jesus Christ.”

The following is a fuller expanded rendering of the Greek text, “Wherefore [in view of the meaning of salvation that extends to glorification, 1 Pet 1:9] having girded up the loins of your mind, being radically-moderate, completely hope on the grace being carried along (5342 /phérō) to you, in revelation, concerning Jesus Christ.”